Vikram Samvat - A Special System of Indian Calendar

Vikram Samvat, also called Vikrami, is a major Hindu calendar popular in the Indian subcontinent. It is traditionally used in many Indian states and the official calendar of Nepal is also Vikram Samvat. It uses lunar months and solar sidereal years. Vikrami Samvat is believed to have started in 57 BC. (Vikrami Samvat = AD + 57).

This Samvat is believed to have started from Kartik Shukla Pratipada in Gujarat and Chaitra Shukla Pratipada in northern India. The tradition of having a year of twelve months and a week of seven days started with Vikram Samvat. The calculation of months is based on the movement of the Sun and the Moon. These twelve zodiac signs correspond to twelve solar months. The months have been named on the basis of the constellation in which the Moon is on the full moon day. The lunar year is shorter than the solar year by 11 days, 3 Ghatis, 48 ​​Palas, so an extra month (Adhimas) is added every 3 years.

The day of the beginning of the new Samvat determines the king of the year.

In the early inscriptions, it was known as 'Krita'. From the 8th and 9th centuries, the name Vikram Samvat became distinctly popular. In Sanskrit astrological texts, the name 'Samvat' alone is commonly used to distinguish it from the Shaka Samvat, not 'Vikrami Samvat'.

Vikram Samvat is a symbol of the religious and cultural richness of Indian society and connects it with our ancient history and traditions.

Vikram Samvat History and Legend

Usage of Vikram Samvat calendar can be seen in a number of ancient and medieval inscriptions. According to popular tradition, King Vikramaditya of Ujjain established the Vikrama Samvat era after defeating the Sakas.The earliest known inscription which calls the era "Vikrama" is from 842.

Vikram Samvat Calendar Calculation

The Hindu New Year Vikram Samvat begins with the new moon of the month of Chaitra. The day is known as Chaitra Sukhladi. Vikram Samvat calendars maintain the integrity of the lunar month; an extra month 'appears', on a strict scientific basis, roughly once every three years (or 7 times in a 19-year cycle, to be more exact) to ensure that festivals and crop-related rituals fall in the appropriate season. The extra month is known as 'adhik maas' in India.

Structure of Vikram Samvat

Vikram Samvat is a luni-solar calendar, in which months are based on lunar months, while the year on solar calculations. It has 12 months, and each month begins with a new cycle of the moon. The names of the months are:

  1. Chaitra or Chait (March-April)
  2. Vaishakh or Baishakh (April-May)
  3. Jyestha or Jyeshtha (May-June)
  4. Ashadha or Asar (June-July)
  5. Shravan or Sawan (July-August)
  6. Bhadrapada or Bhadra or Bhado (August-September)
  7. Ashwin or Asoj (September-October)
  8. Kartik or Kartik (October-November)
  9. Agrahayana or Mangsir (November-December) or Maghar
  10. Paush or Paush (December-January)
  11. Magha or Magh (January-February)
  12. Phalguna or Phalguna (February-March)

Each month begins after Amavasya and ends on Purnima.

Upcoming Festivals & Vrat 2024

The Divine News

Humble request: Write your valuable suggestions in the comment box below to make the website better and share this informative treasure with your friends. If there is any error / correction, you can also contact me through e-mail by clicking here. Thank you.

EN हिं