Chhath is an ancient Hindu Vedic festival which is historically celebrated in Bihar-Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and India's eastern Uttar Pradesh and Nepal in the most elaborate form. This festival is celebrated mainly in Bihar- Jharkhand. But it is also prevalent in areas where the presence of people of Bihar-Jharkhand is present. This festival is celebrated not only in India but also in foreign countries. This festival has now become prominent in the India capital, Delhi. The Chhath Puja is dedicated to the Sun and his wife Usha in order to thank them for bestowing the bounties of life on earth and to request the granting of certain wishes.
It is called Chhath due to Sun Shastri's fasting. This festival is celebrated twice a year. For the first time in Chaitra and the second time in Kartik. The festival celebrated on the Chaitra Shukla Paksha Sashti is called Chaitra Chhath and the festival celebrated on the Kartik Shukla Paksha Sashti is called Kartik Chhath.
Chhath Puja is a four-day festival. It starts with Kartik Shukla Chaturthi and ends with Kartik Shukla Saptami. During this fasting, the fast will continues for next 36 hours. During this time they do not even accept water.
This festival is of four days. It starts from the third day of Bhaiduj on the Kartik Shukla. On the first day, On the first day, Senda salt, Arva rice and pumpkin curry made from ghee which taken as form prasad. Fasting starts from the next day. The person who performs fasting discards the food all day long, and after sunset, after making a rice pudding around 7 pm and offering prayers, it receives prasad, which is called Kharena. On the third day, offering milk to the sunset. On the last day, offering milk to the sunrise. on the occasion special care of purity. Garlic and onion is taboo. Devotees are sung a song in the houses where it is worshiped. In the end, the offerings of worship to the people are given to the people.
Many stories are prevalent in relation to Chhath fast. According to one of them, when Pandavas lost their entire palace in gambling, then Lord Krishna suggest to Draupadi for Chhath fast. When Draupati completed the fast, her wishes were fulfilled and the Pandavas got the Raajpat's back.
According to one belief, Lord Rama and Mata Sita fasted Kartik Shukla Shishtha on the establishment of Ramrajya after the Lanka victory and worshiped the sun god. Saptami had received a blessing from Sun God after re-rituals during sunrise.
If the Chhath festival is seen from a scientific point of view, then a special astronomical transformation on the date, at this time, the ultraviolet rays of the Sun are gathered in greater quantity than the normal on the surface of the earth, hence due to its possible maladies, the power to protect is achieved. Following the festival of Chhath Puja, the animals are protected from harmful effects of sun light. In Hindu religion, Lord Sun is worshiped for the treatment of various types of skin diseases including leprosy diseases.
Ritual rules of the festival are very strict and are celebrated in a period of four days. They stay away from holy baths, fasting and drinking water; stand in water for long periods, and offering and praying for the sun and rising sun.